Which paleolithic site used radiocarbon dating to establish its age

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Radiocarbon dating of bone collagen routinely focuses on the extraction of bulk proteins that are then purified before radiocarbon measurement.

However, the extracted bulk gelatin can be heterogeneous and include, or be cross-linked to, potential contaminants from the depositional environment, such as humic and fulvic acids, rootlets, cellulose, sediments, and other plant and animal remains including amino acids from bacteria and microorganisms (1, 2).

One factor that makes them difficult to evaluate is that the amount of carbon derived from the laboratory protocols themselves was not reported. We have developed a protocol on the basis of preparative HPLC separation of amino acids hydrolyzed from bone collagen.

Mixed-mode HPLC extraction of Hyp could prove very useful in dating bone with too little surviving collagen to be datable by the bulk collagen method.

The Kostenki 14 (Markina Gora) human skeleton excavated near Voronezh, Russia (Fig.

Paleogenetic studies have shown that humans sharing haplogroup U characteristics dispersed into Europe (U5) and North Africa (U6 and M1), but dating of this diaspora is not certain (16).

To help establish a reliable chronology for the Swabian Aurignacian, we are beginning to focus our dating program on short-lived, stratigraphically secure features to see if they yield reproducible results.

This approach may help to test competing explanations for the noisy and often non-reproducible results that arise when trying to date the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic.

One area of pressing need in this respect is dating the spread of early anatomically modern humans out of Africa and into Europe and Eurasia.

Direct dating of hominin fossils, as a means to assess the nature and timing of major demographic dispersals, Neanderthal extinctions, and admixture across Eurasia is usually based on radiocarbon dating and to a lesser extent optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements.

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